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Cities With the Highest (and Lowest) Minority Homeownership Rates

Home equity is one of the biggest contributors to household wealth. According to a Census Bureau report, two assets—home equity and retirement accounts—account for 63 percent of American households’ net worth. Yet, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, only 65 percent of households owned their homes; among minority households, this share was much lower—just 47 percent.

The gap in homeownership between White households and minority households has long persisted. Despite this gap, homeownership rates across ethnic groups have largely trended together with the ups and downs of the economy. In recent years though, the Hispanic homeownership rate has grown faster than that of any other group. Experts attribute this increase to gains in income and education, and a large millennial population entering homeownership age.


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Despite some improvement, low rates of homeownership among minority households is both a result of and a cause of continued wealth inequality, which has only grown worse over the past several decades. Now, spurred on by record-low mortgage rates and the desire for more space, the real estate market is booming in many cities across the country. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a disproportionate impact on lower-income households, and new research suggests that the pandemic is further widening existing housing disparities.

In large part due to higher homeownership rates, White families have much higher net worth than Hispanic, Black, and other or multiple race families. Data from the Federal Reserve Board shows that the median net worth of White families was $188,200 in 2019, while the median net worth of Hispanic and Black families was just a fraction of this, at $36,100 and $24,100, respectively. Minority families of other races were better off financially than Blacks or Hispanics, but still lagged behind White families by a wide margin.

In some parts of the U.S. with large non-White populations, minority homeownership is more prevalent. The Southwest has a large Hispanic population and also high minority homeownership rates. Among all states, New Mexico and Hawaii, which have majority minority populations, have the highest rates of minority homeownership. The minority homeownership rate is 63.7 percent in New Mexico and 59.7 percent in Hawaii. On the other hand—and despite having a large minority population—New York has the second lowest minority homeownership rate in the U.S. at just 33.1 percent. With a minority homeownership rate of 31.6 percent, North Dakota has the lowest rate in the country.

To determine the cities with the highest and lowest minority homeownership, researchers at Construction Coverage analyzed the latest housing data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Cities were ranked according to their minority homeownership rate. Researchers also calculated the homeownership rates for Black; Hispanic; Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander; and White households, as well as the minority population share.

To improve relevance, only cities with at least 100,000 people were included in the analysis. Additionally, cities were grouped into the following cohorts based on population size: 

  • Small cities: 100,000–149,999
  • Midsize cities: 150,000–349,999
  • Large cities: 350,000 or more

Here are the cities with the highest and lowest minority homeownership rates.

Large Cities With the Highest Minority Homeownership

El Paso, TX

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1. El Paso, TX

  • Minority homeownership rate: 58.5%
  • Black homeownership rate: 41.1%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 59.8%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 43.6%
  • White homeownership rate: 61.5%
  • Minority population share: 87.6%

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Albuquerque, NM

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2. Albuquerque, NM

  • Minority homeownership rate: 54.6%
  • Black homeownership rate: 37.1%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 58.2%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 58.4%
  • White homeownership rate: 63.6%
  • Minority population share: 61.5%
Bakersfield, CA

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3. Bakersfield, CA

  • Minority homeownership rate: 52.3%
  • Black homeownership rate: 33.7%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 53.3%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 68.4%
  • White homeownership rate: 62.4%
  • Minority population share: 70.5%
San Jose, CA

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4. San Jose, CA

  • Minority homeownership rate: 52.0%
  • Black homeownership rate: 30.8%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 39.7%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 62.7%
  • White homeownership rate: 60.1%
  • Minority population share: 75.0%

TRENDING ON CONSTRUCTION COVERAGE

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Fort Worth, TX

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5. Fort Worth, TX

  • Minority homeownership rate: 51.2%
  • Black homeownership rate: 39.6%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 57.7%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 64.4%
  • White homeownership rate: 62.8%
  • Minority population share: 62.1%
San Antonio, TX

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6. San Antonio, TX

  • Minority homeownership rate: 50.8%
  • Black homeownership rate: 32.6%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 53.7%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 45.5%
  • White homeownership rate: 56.6%
  • Minority population share: 76.1%
Virginia Beach, VA

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7. Virginia Beach, VA

  • Minority homeownership rate: 50.3%
  • Black homeownership rate: 43.9%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 47.8%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 70.9%
  • White homeownership rate: 69.3%
  • Minority population share: 39.2%
Philadelphia, PA

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8. Philadelphia, PA

  • Minority homeownership rate: 48.2%
  • Black homeownership rate: 48.4%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 44.6%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 54.3%
  • White homeownership rate: 58.5%
  • Minority population share: 65.8%
Oklahoma City, OK

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9. Oklahoma City, OK

  • Minority homeownership rate: 46.5%
  • Black homeownership rate: 35.8%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 50.2%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 68.3%
  • White homeownership rate: 64.5%
  • Minority population share: 46.9%
Detroit, MI

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10. Detroit, MI

  • Minority homeownership rate: 46.4%
  • Black homeownership rate: 45.9%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 52.0%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 39.1%
  • White homeownership rate: 53.3%
  • Minority population share: 89.4%

Large Cities With the Lowest Minority Homeownership

Minneapolis, MN

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1. Minneapolis, MN

  • Minority homeownership rate: 24.8%
  • Black homeownership rate: 18.2%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 28.2%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 36.2%
  • White homeownership rate: 56.3%
  • Minority population share: 39.6%
Boston, MA

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2. Boston, MA

  • Minority homeownership rate: 25.6%
  • Black homeownership rate: 29.6%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 16.5%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 29.3%
  • White homeownership rate: 41.0%
  • Minority population share: 55.1%
New York, NY

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3. New York, NY

  • Minority homeownership rate: 26.5%
  • Black homeownership rate: 26.8%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 16.6%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 42.5%
  • White homeownership rate: 38.6%
  • Minority population share: 68.1%
Miami, FL

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4. Miami, FL

  • Minority homeownership rate: 27.8%
  • Black homeownership rate: 22.4%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 28.4%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 40.1%
  • White homeownership rate: 31.6%
  • Minority population share: 86.7%
Milwaukee, WI

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5. Milwaukee, WI

  • Minority homeownership rate: 30.5%
  • Black homeownership rate: 27.0%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 37.5%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 38.1%
  • White homeownership rate: 53.8%
  • Minority population share: 65.2%
Los Angeles, CA

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6. Los Angeles, CA

  • Minority homeownership rate: 30.5%
  • Black homeownership rate: 27.0%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 28.8%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 38.2%
  • White homeownership rate: 42.7%
  • Minority population share: 71.3%
Long Beach, CA

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7. Long Beach, CA

  • Minority homeownership rate: 30.6%
  • Black homeownership rate: 24.2%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 29.2%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 40.1%
  • White homeownership rate: 46.7%
  • Minority population share: 71.6%
Columbus, OH

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8. Columbus, OH

  • Minority homeownership rate: 32.3%
  • Black homeownership rate: 31.6%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 31.4%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 37.1%
  • White homeownership rate: 52.1%
  • Minority population share: 46.1%
Atlanta, GA

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9. Atlanta, GA

  • Minority homeownership rate: 33.3%
  • Black homeownership rate: 32.4%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 37.7%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 37.3%
  • White homeownership rate: 55.7%
  • Minority population share: 60.9%
Dallas, TX

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10. Dallas, TX

  • Minority homeownership rate: 33.8%
  • Black homeownership rate: 26.3%
  • Hispanic homeownership rate: 41.3%
  • Asian, Native Hawaiian, & Pacific Islander homeownership rate: 32.2%
  • White homeownership rate: 49.0%
  • Minority population share: 70.9%

Detailed Findings & Methodology

The Southwest and California are home to most of the large cities with the highest minority homeownership rates. These cities tend to have high minority population proportions, and the gap between minority homeownership and White homeownership is much smaller than the national average. The small and midsize cities with the highest minority homeownership rates are also predominantly located in the Southwest and California, but their minority homeownership rates tend to be even higher, with rates in some cities as high as 70 or 80 percent.

Cities with low minority homeownership rates are scattered across the country and vary in the size of their minority populations. Non-minority homeownership rates also tend to be lower in these locations, indicating less favorable environments overall for owning a home.

To determine the cities with the highest and lowest minority homeownership, researchers analyzed the latest housing data from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2019 American Community Survey 5-year estimates. Cities were ranked according to their minority homeownership rate. In the event of a tie, the city with the larger number of minority homeowners was ranked higher. Researchers also calculated the homeownership rates for Black; Hispanic (of any race); Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander; and non-Hispanic White households, as well as the minority population share. Minorities were defined as people other than non-Hispanic Whites.

To improve relevance, only cities with at least 100,000 people were included in the analysis. Additionally, cities were grouped into the following cohorts based on population size:

  • Small cities: 100,000–149,999
  • Midsize cities: 150,000–349,999
  • Large cities: 350,000 or more

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